Levitt, P., & Campbell, D. (2009, April). The genetic and neurobiologic compass points toward common signaling dysfunctions in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119(4), 747-754. Retrieved May 17, 2009, doi:10.1172/JCI37934
"Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. Here, we discuss data supporting the view that there are at least two distinct genetic etiologies for ASD: rare, private (de novo) single gene mutations that may have a large effect in causing ASD; and inherited, common functional variants of a combination of genes, each having a small to moderate effect in increasing ASD risk. It also is possible that a combination of the two mechanisms may occur in some individuals with ASD. We further discuss evidence from individuals with a number of different neurodevelopmental syndromes, in which there is a high prevalence of ASD, that some private mutations and common variants converge on dysfunctional ERK and PI3K signaling, which negatively impacts neurodevelopmental events regulated by some receptor tyrosine kinases. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]"
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